Article V of the Constitution requires only "the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States" to ratify Amendments [Governors, therefore, need not apply! This mythology is further bolstered by a tendency to view the Constitutional Convention as having been well above the fray of ordinary Politics: The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.
In recognition of this reality, the Twelfth Amendment, ratified inimposed the only major change that the Electoral College has ever seen.
But this was all done rather informally and, beyond this, ran headlong into the workings of the Electoral College: However, when the Convention considered electoral schemes such as these, it was in the negative- as methods of election with inherent defects and weaknesses and altogether fraught with peril if applied to the choice of an American national executive.
At this point the normally fastidious Adams, who had finished second to Jackson in the electoral vote, put aside his scruples and began making deals for all he was worth. Finally, applying the gray-states rules to all states would give a mean outcome of D, R, with some variability.
The system was the ultimate "machine that would go of itself" in the minds of the Framers: Out of 10 states with extreme outcomes, 8 favored the party that controlled the process, and two were under the control of a nonpartisan commission. In all, 9 of 24 states were using legislative choice of Presidential Electors- but 15 [!
In short, we have to know how the conception of the office of President of the United States itself arose in order to then understand why these sometimes mysterious Electors actually elect that President. According to historian Joseph Ellisthis was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.
It is worth understanding what is baked into the system, and has been analyzed by John Sides and others. Robert Dole each of whom would within a few years take a personal interest in presidential elections.
Senator, one new State had been admitted to the Union Ohio and the Senate now had 34 members. To appease the small states, though, each state was given a single vote without regard to its size.
Instead, they put on their ballots two names for President, at least one of which had to be from outside their state. When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandalthe Supreme Court ruled in United States v.
Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy. Communities of interest include minority communities, but also areas that share common bonds like mountain communities, college towns or agricultural towns.
On January 6, —a month before the votes would officially be counted, though the results had already been leaked—Rep. Under this system, if the first-place finisher was named on a majority of ballots, he would become President, and the second-place finisher—regardless of whether he was named on a majority of ballots—would become Vice President.
At a minimum, power would be more evenly balanced and the possibility of paralysis reduced. George Mason of Virginia was particularly scathing in his denunciation of popular election. Calhoun of South Carolina had a majority of of the votes cast by the Electors for Vice-President and was thereby elected to that office, found that no one had gained a majority in the Electoral College and- for only the second time- the House of Representatives was now to be obliged to choose the new President.
This was the development of political parties. Only a combination of dumb luck the 4 lucky breaks noted abovepolitical skill and last-minute compromise prevented Aaron Burr from being elected President or a constitutional crisis from ensuing come 4 March Would North Dakota be allowed to continue to have no form of voter registration, as it does now?
On 1 Marchthe Electoral Commission formally announced the results of its work and disbanded; the following day, the two houses of Congress met once more in Joint Session to ratify these results and Rutherford B.
Every elector used one of his votes for a figure of national prominence in this case George Washington, though it was not expected that there would always be such an overwhelmingly obvious choiceand the second votes were scattered among a wide variety of local and national figures.
Under this method, if a state has 10 electoral votes and Candidate A wins Something similar might be said about women, of course, but they were not concentrated in any one section. The Presentment Clause requires that any bill passed by Congress must be presented to the president before it can become law.
That was one reason for the Electoral College, but far from the only one. Yet all theory went out the window almost as soon as the First Congress assembled.school districts and other specialdistricts on districting, redistricting and electoral matters.
She has assisted in all phases of such cases including design of plans, the public hearing process, analysis of proposed alternatives.
now republicans intend to award electoral votes by those districts. Even if voters vote democrat, the electoral votes will be awarded to a republican with 25 percent of the vote.
IN ESSENCE, VOTERS WILL BE DISENFRANCHISED, that is their vote count. "uninformed and would be misled by a few designing men." Id. Some states created several "super districts" that each elected a certain number of electors.
Id. A small minority divided the state into two halves, with a certain number of electoral Electoral College, Maryland Dares to Go Where Schwarzenegger Wouldn't, L.A. Times 3 (Apr. The next change to affect the Electoral College occurred with the adoption of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in this Amendment allows the District of Columbia- even though it is not a State- to cast a popular vote for President and Vice-President and have a number of Electoral Votes counted by Congress on its behalf equal to the.
So it has happened again. A close presidential election has led to recriminations, cries of fraud, and talk of tainted mandates. Just as predictably, the election has inspired calls to reform the Electoral College—predictably, that is, because such proposals have followed every close presidential contest since the beginning of the Republic.
school districts and other specialdistricts on districting, redistricting and electoral matters. She has assisted in all phases of such cases including design of plans, the public hearing process, analysis of proposed alternatives.Download